Biomedical Chemistry: Research and Methods 2020, 3(1), e00119

Preparation of Electrochemical Biosensor Systems for the Analysis of Biological Objects: a Reasonable Choice of Modifications of the Working Surface of Electrodes for Performing Research in the "Smart Electrode" Mode

V.V. Shumyantseva1,2*, L.E. Agafonova1, T.V. Bulko1, A.V. Kuzikov1,2, R.A. Masamrekh1,2

1Institute of Biomedical Chemistry, 10 Pogodinskaya Street, Moscow, 119121 Russia;
2Pirogov Russian National Research Medical University, 1 Ostrovitianova Street, Moscow, 117997 Russia

Keywords:electroanalysis; carbon nanotubes; metal nanoparticles; polymer composite materials, one- dimensional structures, biosensors


The whole version of this paper is available in Russian.

The electrochemical method of analysis of biological objects based on the reaction of electro-oxidation/electro-reduction of molecules is considered. Materials and complex systems for modifying electrodes as well as methods for producing modified electrodes to increase the sensitivity of recording the flow of electrochemical reactions on the surface of the electrodes are described. Methods of electrode modifications based on synthetic lipid-like didodecyldimethylammonium bromide, gold and silver nanoparticles, one-dimensional nanoparticles based on lead compounds, titan oxide nanoparticles, dispersions of carbon nanotubes in organic solvents, in polymers with different chemical structure are considered. It is shown that the appropriate functionalization of the working electrode surface makes it possible to increase the sensitivity of the electrochemical biosensor system and decrease the limit of detection. The results are presented in the form of an algorithm applicable for selection the beneficial type of modified electrode for the corresponding electrochemical reaction and biosample analysis.

Figure 1. Design of screen-printing electrodes.
Figure 2. Electroanalysis of cytochrome P450 using electrodes as an electron source [22].
Figure 3. Principle of electrochemical analysis of nucleic acids [11].
Figure 4. Electroanalysis of oligonucleotides Oligonucleotide 1: 5’- AAACCCGACCGG–3’ and Oligonucleotide 2: 5’- AAACCCGCCCGG–3’using nanostructured electrodes [11].
Figure 5. Comparison of SPE/DDAB, SPE/TiO2 and SPE/MWCNT for myoglobin analysis [19].
Figure 6. Analysis of cardiac troponin I based on stripping voltammetry of AuNPs with detection limit of 10-10 g/ml (4.25 10-12 М). Dependence of the cathodic peak current of Auel stripping voltammetry on the amount of cTnI in plasma samples. Io corresponds to average cathodic peak current of plasma of healthy donors (HD). Inset: stripping voltammograms of SPE/AuNPel/DDAB/anticTnI+plasma of HD (A), SPE/AuNPel/DDAB/anti-cTnI+plasma of AMI (B, Acute myocardial infarction) [14].
Figure 7. Analysis of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP)-dependent drug metabolism [31].
Figure 8. Panoramic DPV as "electrochemical fingerprint" of cytochrome c deposited on a surface of SPE/PnBA100-b-PAA140/MWCNT electrode. Response for 100 µM cytochrome c with oxidation/reduction of heme (1), oxidation of amino acids Tyr + Trp (2), and electrooxidative destruction of heme (3) [13].
Figure 9. Scheme of functionalization of electrodes for electroanalysis.

Table 1. Analytical characteristics of chemically modified electrodes for the analysis of biological objects.


This work was performed within the framework of the Program for Basic Research of Russian State Academy of Sciences for 2013-2020.


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